Biological Pathways to Improve Pest Control in Agriculture

by Gupta, Manika
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Gupta, Manika Biological Pathways to Improve Pest Control in Agriculture
Gupta, Manika - Biological Pathways to Improve Pest Control in Agriculture

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Description


India is especially suitable for agricultural products, its vast plains containing alluvial soil with rich natural contents. The major economy of India is based on agricultural products. The green revolution in India brought high hopes for Indian farmers. Several new scientific information helped crop production to grow by leaps and bounds: the more researches, the more intricacies. Further knowledge of pests makes scientists consider several new solutions. The use of chemicals was immediately adopted to decimate the population of pests and, at first, good results were obtained. But later on, harmful effects of the pesticides became known. It was realized later on that the regular use of chemicals in pesticides is extremely dangerous for human health.
Generally, chemical pesticides are used to curb the harmful effects of insects and pests. But the immediate gain of this process has an adverse effect on the environment in the long run. Regular use of chemicals leads to insecticide resistance. Then, biodiversity is distributed by pest resurgence and pesticide residues. So, the immediate gain of one generation creates serious problems for the next generation.
To sustain agriculture towards its natural mode some new solutions are to be traced. The solution to reduce pesticides is present in the preference for biological management. Predators and parasitoids may be used as natural enemies. In order to gain control over the thrips pests by less harmful means for the agricultural crops, more research work needs to be done. Certain other methods have to be explored in favour of the environment, biodiversity and other useful flora and fauna. We need to maintain the tritrophic interactions in which eating relationships between several species may be traced for biological control.

Contributors

Author:
Gupta, Manika

Further information

Illustrations Note:
177 Abb.
Excerpt:
Text Sample:
Chapter 3.5 Laboratory Bioassays:
The use of laboratory bioassays was also made for the mass production, culturing and rearing of selected samples. Some used bioassays were as followed:
(1) Petri Dishes:
From the selected sites the infected or parasitized eggs and larvae of thrips were collected and put in petri dishes with the help of camel hair brush. After some time, these petri dishes were transferred in BOD incubator for emerging of adult thrips. [...].
(2) Glass Vials:
Glass vials with alcohol were used to preserve the different life stages; eggs, larvae,
pupae and adults of thrips. It was also used to collect the life stages of selected natural enemies. These thrips and natural enemies were collected from the different selected sites of District Aligarh of Western Uttar Pradesh. [...].
(3) Binocular Digital Microscope & Camera Lucida:
For the study of biology and taxonomy of selected thrips specimens and their natural enemies we used the Binocular digital Microscope. We also applied the camera Lucida to draw the scratch diagrams of the insect specimens. [...].
(4) Rearing Cages & Plexi Glass Containers:
These were made up of wooden cages. These wooden cages used for proper ventilation to thrips. Each cage opened by a sliding lid. A mesh in each cage was also fixed on lid to prevent the other insects. Ventilated plexi glass containers with lids were purchased for rearing of thrips. Culture of thrips was also preserved in the containers for further scientific studies. [...].
(5) BOD Incubator (Biological Oxygen Demand):
It is the method in which the amount of dissolve oxygen is needed by aerobic biological organisms against break down of organic material which present in a given sample at appropriate temperature over a specific period of time. BOD Incubator was used for rearing the selected specimens who were collected from selected outfields. [...].
(6) Insect collecting boxes:
These were used for the preservation and to maintain our record of selected sample specimens which were collected from the different outfields.
3.6 Methods of Stock Collection:
(1) Pinning of Predator Samples:
This method was used for preserving and handling insects for the taxonomical studies. Pinned insects were stored quite safely. For this, various sizes of entomological pins were purchased and used. [...].
Regarding this 2/3 portion of pin was used below the pinned insect and 1/3 above.
In Hymenopterous insect predators were pinned through the centre of mesothorax.
Some small collected insects were pinned by micropins; small sized pins.
(2) Spreading & Positioning by spreading board:
The spreading board or setting board was used for some collected predatory insects. Predatory mites and minute pirate bugs were properly spread on the board under our laboratory conditions. In this process, the antennal was direct and frontal. Abdominal appendages and their ovipositor were directly backward. Wings were spread properly. Hind edge of forewing was at right angle to the body and hind wing appropriately matched with forewing. After this, the wing setting was done by pinning the paper stripes on the spreading board.
(3) Carding Method:
Some collected small insects were placed on a white rectangular card; 5x8 mm or 5x12 mm. below this, card data labelled card was also placed in which we contained some information about the collection of the samples during the research survey. In this manner, information about identification of such insects, name of their host plant, date of collection, name of the collector etc was properly placed. Some small triangular cards were also used for pinning the small insects. [...].
3.7 Taxonomic Research Study:
(1) Tools and Techniques:
The evaluation and manipulation of specimens were arranged with the help of fine micropins, mounted with sealing wax on matchsticks. A pair of straight and with apex bent pins was used for taxonomic slide preparation. To accomplish our sample specimen
Media Type:
Taschenbuch
Publisher:
Anchor Academic Publishing
Biography Artist:

My name is Dr. Manika Gupta and I'm a distinguished researcher in the field of biological management of Insect Pests. During last three years I am teaching as an assistant prof (Entomology) in D.S. (P.G.) college, Aligarh. Nowadays, I am working for biological management of different crops for enhancing the natural population of natural enemies. this year I have completed my research on the concerned topic " Impact of chili thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis; Thysanoptera:Thripidae on chili, Capsicum annuum crop with special reference to their biological control". During my research tenure, I have published so many research papers in favor of sustainable agriculture in the various refereed journals namely, Annals of Natural Sciences, Nature and Environment, Bio Notes. I have attended national and international conferences and presented papers to the approbation of the intellectual audience. I have worked with the farmers of western Uttar Pradesh for the popularization of biological management technology for the production of chili crops.

I am native of India. If you would like to contact me, I would love to hear from you. I'm at manika.gupta1992@gmail.com
Language:
Englisch
Number of Pages:
392

Master Data

Product Type:
Paperback book
Release date:
10 November 2017
Package Dimensions:
0.21 x 0.148 x 0.021 m; 0.467 kg
GTIN:
09783960671893
DUIN:
U060CL9IO3A
£64.98
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